Psychology and Counselling
Behaviorism (also called behavioral psychology) refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scienti c and objective methods of investigation. It assumes that all behavior are either re exes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli. Thus, although behaviorists generally accept the important role of inheritance in determining behavior, they focus primarily on environmental factors. Behaviorism combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and psychological theory. Behaviorism emerged in the early 20th century as a reaction to the psychoanalytic theory of the time, and focused on observable behaviors rather than on unconscious inner states. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov is widely known for describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs. Classical conditioning is a technique frequently used in behavioral training in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus, even without the naturally occurring stimulus presenting itself. The associated stimulus is now known as the conditioned stimulus and the learned behavior is known as the conditioned response.